ROME: The Roman Republic (510BC-44BC) sent Julius Caesar in 55BC to investigate Britain. Rome wanted good farming land to grow food crops to support its large population. The Republic transformed into the Roman Empire (44BC to 479AD) shortly after, when Julius Caesar declared himself perpetual dictator. It was not until 43AD that Rome created permanent settlements in Britain: when Emperor Claudius sent an army of 40,000 men to overcome the natives. It took several governors many decades to subdue the fierce native tribespeople. Eventually, most submitted, but the Picts (the native tribes living in what is now Scotland) did not. Between 378AD and 410AD, with the economic and military collapse of the Roman Empire, troops and governors were withdrawn from Britain, leaving the country unprotected. It lapsed into petty kingdoms and internal conflict. Soon after, the Viking invasions began and Britain lost much of its Roman culture and “civilisation”. Roman Empire in the 1st Century AD
Gnaeus Julius Agricola (July 13, 40AD - August 23, 93AD) was the Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain. Arriving in Britain mid-summer of 78AD, Agricola immediately moved against the Ordovices (native tribes of north Wales) and defeated them. He then moved north to the island of Mona (Anglesey), and forced its inhabitants to sue for peace.
He established a good reputation as an administrator as well as a commander by reforming the widely corrupt corn tax. He introduced Romanising measures, encouraging communities to build towns on the Roman model and educating the sons of the native nobility in the Roman manner. He also expanded Roman rule north into Caledonia (modern Scotland). He was eventually recalled to Rome in 85AD and died in 93AD.
Agricola had two sons, both of whom died in infancy; plus a daughter who married Tacitus. Tacitus is famous for his written records of Agricola’s life and it is from these writings that we get most of our information about Agricola. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gnaeus_Julius_Agricola
Roman army: Contubernium: (tent group) consisted of 8 men Centuria: (century) was made up of 10 contubernium with a total of 80 men commanded by a centurion (officer) Cohorts: (cohort) included 6 centuriae or a total of 480 fighting men, not including officers. Legio: (Legion) consisted of 10 cohorts. Additionally each Legion had a 120 man Alae (cavalry unit) called the Eques Legionis permanently attached to it possibly to be used as scouts and messengers.
Therefore the total fighting strength of a Legion is: The First Cohort totalling 800 men (5 double-strength centuries with 160 men each); 9 Cohorts (with 6 centuries at 80 men each) for a total 4,320, and an additional 120 man cavalry for a grand total of 5,240 men not including all the officers. http://www.unrv.com/military/legion.php
Roman measurements: 1 League (Leuga) = 2.22km 1 Mile (milliarium) = 1.48km
BRITAIN Before the invasion of Britain by the Romans, the islands were inhabited by native Celtic-culture and Brythonic tribes. They lived in iron age fashion, with timber or earthen-walled, thatched “round-houses”,basic pottery and agricultural skills. They were farmers living in small village groups, each looking to their own chieftain for guidance. When invaded, however, they proved to be fierce warriors.
Cunetio The village of Cunetio was originally farmland around the area now called Mildenhall in Wiltshire, UK. When the Romans pushed into the area, a small settlement sprang up around a major crossroads. In later years, the settlement grew into a town with a large stone wall. After the Romans left in about 450AD, it fell into ruin and was lost. In 1978 a hoard of 55000 small-value Roman coins was found there by archaeologists. Recently, the Time Team TV show re-investigated the area and mapped it more thoroughly.
Druids: Little is known of the druids’ true functions and beliefs in pre-Roman Britain. It is thought that they served as priests of a sort and held rituals at sacred sites throughout the year that were connected with the Earth Goddess image and various other minor pagan gods and goddesses revered at the time. They were also responsible for upholding laws, settling disputes and teaching students the ideas of astronomy and science of the time.
Language: The unusual words Brynn and the others occasionally use are from the Ancient Breton language that was spoken by the tribespeople of the time. There are also Welsh words, as Welsh is the closest living relative to the language of the ancient Breton people to whom Brynn belongs. The words are as follows: Carega Amgarn (Stone Circle) - Welsh y Twlwyth Teg (The fair people) – Welsh Plowonida (Wide river) – Bretonic Leidyr (thief) – Welsh Hyllion Bagia (‘all I bag’) – Welsh Aurfanon (Gold Queen) - Welsh
Elves: Celtic/Irish/Welsh history is rich in stories of the Faery kingdom. They form the basis of many modern stories and exert a fascination on all ages of people even today.