Naga – many Indian people believe the Naga are a snake-people dwelling underground and protecting treasures. The word Naga comes from the ancient Sanskrit language, and "nag" is still the word for snake in most of the languages of India. They are considered nature spirits and the protectors of springs, wells and rivers. They bring rain, and thus fertility, but are also thought to bring disasters such as floods and drought. Since Nagas have an affinity with water, the entrances to their underground palaces are often said to be hidden at the bottom of wells, deep lakes and rivers. Varuna, the Vedic god of storms, is viewed as the King of the Nagas. According to some traditions Nagas are only malevolent to humans when they have been mistreated.
Cadoc = Welsh for “battle” Punya-Vishaya is the modern city of Pune. It was, in ancient times, just a small, agricultural market town. Pune (pronounced: Poon-eh). It is inland of the ancient port of Mumbai/Bombay/Śūrpāraka Śūrpāraka: (or Soupara) is the ancient Sanskrit name for the port of Bombay (now called Mumbai). It was a large trading port on the western coast of India. The Sakas: Were the Scythian peoples who originally lived in the eastern part of Central Asia. They are considered to be of north-eastern Iranian people. They lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan; moving east into parts of Afghanistan, parts of Pakistan, parts of India in the centuries before 300AD. www.answers.com The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas: The word Kshatrapa stands for satrap, which means viceroy or governor of a province. So the Western Kshatrapas were a province of India between 35 and 405AD Bhumaka: Kshaharata Bhumaka(?-119 AD) was a Western Kshatrapa ruler of the late 1stcentury AD. He was the father of the great Kshatrapa Nahapana, who was later defeated by Guatamiputra Sakartani of the Satavahana Empire.
The names Jade chooses for them in India all have meaning in the ancient Sanskrit language. Bala (Brynn) = Sanskrit boy name meaning “Child, young one” Marut (Marcus) = Sanskrit boy name meaning “The Wind” Chandak (Cadoc) = Sanskrit boy name meaning “the Moon” Pran (Phoenix) = Sanskrit boy name meaning “Life” Jaya (Jade) = Sanskrit girl name meaning “victory”
Guatamiputra Satakarni was the most famous king of the Satavahana dynasty. It is believed that he ruled from about 80AD until about 130AD. He defeated the Saka Katrap Nahapana (son of Bhumaka) to regain the western part of his empire. He also defeated armies of the Sakas (Scythians), Yavanas (Greeks) and Pahlavas (Parithans). His son, Vasisthiputra Sri Pulamavi, ruled at Paithan on the banks of Godavari River, from about 130AD. Putra, in the ancient Sanskrit language, means ‘son of a king’. Castes: Hindu society is traditionally categorized into four classes, called Varnas.. 1) The lowest of the Varnas was the Shudras - the servants and farmhands who did not own their own business or their own land, and who had to work for other people. Probably the largest number of people belonged to this caste. 2) Above them were the Vaishyas, or farmers and traders, who owned their own farms or businesses. 3) Above these were the Kshatriya, or warriors. There were not very many true Kshatriyas. A lot of them were in the army, or leaders in other ways. Women could not be warriors, but if they were born into a Kshatriya family, they were still of that caste and could only marry into that caste. 4) The most powerful caste was the Brahmins, the priests and leaders. There were only a few of them. Only Brahmin men were allowed to go to school, or to teach in schools (Brahmin women could not go to school). Guatamiputra and his family are believed to have been from this caste. People who came from different castes could not eat together. Usually people from one caste did not marry or make friends with people from another caste. Below the four Varnas, were the Untouchables of no caste. Below the Untouchables were the slaves. Untouchables usually did the worst jobs, like cleaning up people's poop from the gutters, or collecting garbage www.historyforkids.org/learn/india/people/slaves.htm
Vishnu is one of the many aspects of the Supreme God, Brahman, according to the Hindu belief system. Hinduism is a very complex, very diverse set of beliefs. Common themes include: · A) Devas - (hundreds of gods who are just various aspects of Brahman) coming to earth as avatars B) Dharma – ethics, morals & duties; C) Samsara – the continuing cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth (reincarnation) D) Karma – action and consequence/reaction; E) Moksha – the freedom from Samsara; F) Yoga – various forms of paths, practices and meditations.
There are many fascinating tales, poems and stories from thousands of years of Hindu beliefs in the gods. Most Hindus favour one or more aspects of Brahman and pay respects to the god that represents that best. For example: Shiva represents destruction or transformation; Ganeshi is the remover of obstacles.
The urumi or chuttuval is a long sword made of flexible steel, sharp enough to cut into flesh, but flexible enough to be rolled into a tight coil. It was used and still can be found in Kerala, India and is one of the weapons learned by practitioners of the martial art of Kalaripayattu.
Onager:The Roman catapult, the onager, (Latin for wild ass because it had a kick like a donkey when the arm was released), was a very large and cumbersome piece of equipment. It could fire rocks of up to 150 lbs (70 kgs) to be used to smash through walls and fortifications. It could also be loaded with the equivalent mass of smaller stones or fiery pitch to use against enemy troops or to bombard the inside of a fort.
Garuda. In Hindu mythology, Garuda is usually the mount (vahanam) of Vishnu. Garuda is often depicted as being an eagle or a half-eagle: having a golden body, white face, red wings, and an eagle's head, but with a man's body. Legend says he will only acknowledge a true king. He has been a long-time enemy of the Naga.
Pataleshwar Cave Temple: dedicated to Lord Pataleshwar - God of the Underworld, dates back to the eighth century. One of the major attractions of the Pataleshwar Cave Temple of Pune is its exquisite rock-cut architecture. The cave temple also comprises of a shrine, dedicated to Lord Shiva. The rocks of the cave, cut into pillars, seating areas and akin rooms, are as old as 700-800 AD, so it’s later than in this story. The Shiva shirne is situated in a cube-shaped room, located in the middle of the Temple. Adorned with ornate carvings, the temple also houses the idols of Lord Rama, Sita, Laxmana, Lord Ganesh and Goddess Lakshmi.